Excerpts From Why Men Earn More

By Warren Farrell

Introduction


• Helping women achieve higher pay is a core goal of this book. (p. xvii)
• There are 25 differences in the way women and men behave in the workplace. These 25 differences lead to men receiving higher pay and women having better lives—or at least more balanced lives. (p. xvii)
• A person working 45 hours per week averages 44% more income than someone working 40 hours per week. That’s 44% more income for 13% more time. (p. xviii)
• “If an employer had to pay a man one dollar for the same work a woman could do for 59 cents, why would anyone hire a man? (p. xix)
• In 1969, nationwide, female professors who had never been married and never published earned 145% of their counterpart male colleagues. (p. xxii)
• Survey 2001: Men who never married, never had a child, worked full time and were college educated earn only 85% of what women with the same criteria earn. (p. xxii)
• A part-time working woman makes $1.10 for every dollar made by her male counterpart. (p. xxii)


(p. xxiii)
• Our focus on discrimination against women during the past 30 years has blinded us to opportunities for women. (p. xxiv)
Power and Pay: The Pay Paradox (p. xxiv)
• I define power as “control over one’s life.” (p. xxiv)
• Pay is not about power. Pay is about giving up power to get the power of pay.
(p. xxiv)
• Men earn more money, therefore men have more power; and men earn more money, therefore men have less power (earning more money as an obligation, not an option). (p. xxiv)
• The opposite is true for women: Women earn less money, therefore women have less power; and women earn less money, therefore women have more power (the option to raise children or to not take a hazardous job). (p.xxiv)
The Challenge of Why Men Earn More (p. xxvii)
• Putting the assumption of victim status “on hold.” (p. xxviii)
• Encouraging the reader to take it “off hold” if, after checking out the 25 ways, the conclusion is “discrimination.” (p. xxviii)
• It seems like a simpler solution to blame men for the pay gap than to engineer your own bridge to higher pay. (p.xxvii)
The Uses of Why Men Earn More for Employers (and the Government) (p.xxx)
• Empower employees, help companies both profit and prevent lawsuits, and help the government prevent discrimination. (p. xxx)
• Give women ways of earning more rather than suing more. (p. xxxi)
• Give companies ways of teaching women how to earn more. (p. xxxi)
• Give the government ways of separating real discrimination from its appearance. (p.xxxi)
• Give human resource divisions of larger companies 25 guidelines for measuring contributions. (p. xxxi)
• Shift the HR paradigm from a starting assumption of “the higher the percentage of men, the greater the discrimination against women,” to a starting point of 25 measurements of who is making which contributions to the company that the company needs when the company needs it. (p. xxxi)
The Methods, the Data, and the Caveats (p. xxxii)
• At this moment in history, gender-specific research is funded with a consciousness toward making women in the workplace look equally engaged but unequally paid. (p. xxxii)
• Since this book is about pay, “work” refers to paid work, not work at home: Women’s and men’s contributions inside the home are a topic in another book of mine (Women Can’t Hear What Men Don’t Say). (p. xxxii)
• There are many ways to increase pay that Why Men Earn More does not address.
(p. xxxii)

 

Part One: Twenty Five Ways to Increase Your Pay (p. 1)

Chapter 1: Field of Dreams: Choose the Right Field and Higher Pay Will Come (p. 3)
• Self-help books for those who believe “You can have it all” often advise, “Follow your bliss and money will follow.” (p.3)
• With the collapse of the stock markets the reality of trade-offs is more like, “When you follow your bliss, it’s money you’ll miss.” (p. 3)
• From the Jobs Rated Almanac’s worst-job list: We often hear that women are segregated into lower-paying jobs. What is probably true is that women are more likely to take lower paid jobs precisely to avoid these worst jobs. (p.4)
• The fields with the highest paid workers bias toward engineering, computers and the hard sciences while the lowest paid are doing work that almost any adult can do—therefore there is no end to the supply of available people. (p. 10)

 

Chapter 2
The Field-with-Higher-Yield Formula: The First Five Ways (p. 18)

• 1. Choose a field in technology or the hard sciences, not the arts or social sciences (pharmacology vs. literature) (p. 27)
• 2. Get hazard pay without the hazards (female administrator in Air Force vs. male combat soldier in Army) (p. 27)
• The Catch-22 of Hazardous Occupations Creates a Female “Glass Cellar” (p. 27)
• How Hazardous Occupations Give Women Equal Pay with Unequal Hazards
(p. 28)
• Why Hazardous Jobs Can Be So Much Less Hazardous for Women (p. 31)
• The “Protection Dilemma”: The Warrior vs. the Worrier (p. 33)
• The Costs and Benefits of Choosing Safety (p. 35)
• Industrialization’s Unconscious Transition in a Mom’s way of Risking her Life (p. 35)
• How Men in the Hazardous Professions are their Own Worst Enemy (p. 36)
• Men’s Weakness As Their Façade Of Strength; Women’s Strength as Their Façade Of Weakness (p. 38)
• Our praise of our sons when they risk physical danger teaches our sons that being willing to be physically abused creates love. (p. 39)
• How to Make a Fortune in the Death Professions Without the Death or the Dirt (p.41)
• 3. Among jobs requiring little education, those that expose you to the sleet and heat pay more than those that are indoors and neat (Fed Ex delivery vs. receptionist) (p. 44)
• When Affirmative Action Marries Technology and Invites Women into the Family (p. 45)
• 4. In most fields with higher pay, you can’t psychologically check out at the end of the day (corporate attorney vs. librarian) (p. 47)
• 5. Fields with higher pay often have lower fulfillment (tax accountant vs. childcare professional) (p. 50)
• The gender pay gap is better explained as a gender fulfillment gap. (p. 52)
• Women penetrate glass ceiling, find wisdom, leave. (p.52)

 

Chapter 3
The Field-with-Higher-Yield Formula: The Final Five (p. 60)

• 6. People Who Get Higher Financial Rewards Choose Fields with Higher Financial and Emotional Risks (venture capitalist vs. supermarket cashier) (p. 60)
• 7. Many Fields with Higher Pay Require Working the Worst Shifts During the Worst Hours (private practice medical doctor vs. HMO medical doctor) (p. 66)
• 8. Some Jobs Pay More to Attract People to Unpleasant Environments Without Many People (prison guard vs. restaurant hostess) (p. 69)
• 9. Updating Pays: Currency begets Currency (sales engineer vs. French language scholar) (p. 72)
• 10. People Who Get Higher Pay Choose Sub-fields With High Pay (p. 74)

 

Chapter 4
Doing Time: People Who Get Higher Pay… (p.77)

• 11. Work More Hours – And It Makes a Big Difference. (p. 78)
• Is the Gender Pay Gap Mostly an Hours-Worked Gap? (p. 82)
• Breaking the Glass Ceiling Time Barrier (p. 82)
• How 7-11 Pay Creates the Option for Women of Succeeding at Work without Failing at Home (p. 82)
• 12. Have More Years of Experience –Especially in Their Current Occupation (p.85)
• 13. Have More Years of Recent, Uninterrupted Experience with Their Current Employer (p.87)
• 14. Work More Weeks During the Year (p.89)
• 15. Are Absent Less Often from Work (p. 90)
• 16. Commute to Jobs that are Farther Away. (p. 90)

Chapter 5
On the Move: People Who Get Higher Pay… (p. 93)
• 17. Are More Willing to Relocate—Especially to Undesirable Locations at the Company’s Behest (p. 93)
• Move Overseas: The Farther Away, The Farther Up (p. 94)
• Move Upon Demand; and Move for Two Decades (p. 95)
• 18. Are More Willing to Travel Extensively On the Job (p. 100)

Chapter 6.
Responsibility, Training, Ambition, and Productivity:

People Who Get Higher Pay… (p. 103)
• 19. Take on Different Responsibilities Even When Their Titles Are the Same (p. 104)
• 20. Take On Bigger Responsibilities Even When Their Job Titles Are the
Same (p. 105)
• 21. Require Less Security (p. 107)
• 22. Have More Relevant Training In Their Current Occupation (p. 108)
• 23. Have Higher Career Goals to Begin With (p. 109)
• 24. Do More In-Depth Job Searches (p.113)
• 25. Above All, Produce More (p. 115)

Part Two: Women in the Workplace (p. 125)

Chapter 7.
What Women Contribute to the Workplace (p. 127)

Chapter 8.
Why Women and Men Approach Work So Differently, Yet So Similarly (p. 133)

• Money and Love: “A Diamond is a Girl’s Best Friend” (p. 135)
• If Women Contribute So Much to the Workplace, Why Do Some Men Seem So Threatened? (p. 137)
• Do “Mother Track” Women Create a Stereotype that Affects “Career Track” Women? (p. 140)
• Paying for Help (p. 141)

 

Chapter 9.
The Myths That Prevent Women from Knowing Why Men Earn More (p. 143)

• How the Belief in the Discrimination Against Women Hurts Women’s
Careers (p. 145)
• How the Belief in the Discrimination Against Women Poisons Love and Families Divides (p. 146)
• Protecting Women versus Helping Women (p. 147)
• Women who received protection as employees will increasingly pay for that protection as employers. (p. 147)
• The “Women Make Better Managers” Trap (p. 148)
• What “Men Are Hierarchical, Women Are Collaborative,” Misses (p. 149)
• The “Women Are Better Managers Because Women Are Better Jugglers”
Bias (p. 151)
• The “Women Are Better Managers Because Women Stress Cooperation, Not Competition Bias (p. 155)
• Sports: Cooperation or Competition? (p. 155)

Chapter 10.
Discrimination Against Women (p. 162)

• Guilt Trippin’ Mom (p. 163)
• The “Old-Boy Network” (p. 163)
• Discrimination Against Female Bosses (p. 164)
• Valid Stereotype, Wrong Person (p. 164)
• Humor’s Risky Waters (p. 165)
• Male Socialization Layered onto Male Biology (p. 166)
• The Future of Mentorship Discrimination (p. 169)
• Mentorship’s Rebellion Process (p. 170)
• Men Have “a Wife”; Women Don’t (p. 171)

Chapter 11.
Discrimination in Favor of Women: Why Women Are Now Often Paid More Than Men for the Same Work (p. 172)

• What’s Changed? “The Law of Profitable Inefficiency” (p. 174)
• The Affirmative Action Tax and Psychological Affirmative Action (p. 176)
• How the Fear of Male Sexuality Leads to Discrimination Against Men (p. 178)
• Discrimination Against Men as Nursery School and Elementary School
Teachers (p. 180)
• The Caste System: Making the Transition from Untouchable to Touchable
Male (p. 180)
• “Female Comfort Power” and Its Hiring Bias (p. 183)
• Discrimination for Women in College and University Teaching—Especially in the Social Sciences (p. 184)
• Discrimination for Women in Family Services (p. 186)
• Women, Men and the “Mentorship Gene” (p. 188)

Chapter 12.
The Genetic Celebrity Pay Gap (p. 191)

• And What, Pray Tell, Is a “Genetic Celebrity”? (p. 191)
• Genetic Celebrity Hiring Discrimination (p. 198)
• Doesn’t Beauty Work Against Women Who Want To Be Taken Seriously? (p. 199)
• “Access Discrimination” via “The Glass Preview” (p. 201)
• The Savior Syndrome (p. 201)
• "Marrying Up:” Reality Haunts Expectation (p. 202)
• "Marrying Up” as Invisible Income (p. 213)
• “Marrying Up’s” Invisible Income Creates a Female Option of Less Workplace Income (p. 203)
• “Marrying Up” As “Career Flashdancing” (p. 205)
• She Marries Up, He Dies off, She Moves Up (p. 206)

 

Chapter 13.
Two Nagging Questions... (p. 209)

• When Women Enter Men’s Occupations, Doesn’t The Pay Go Down? (p. 209)
• “Isn’t the Issue More Than Equal Pay – Isn’t It Comparable Worth? (p. 210)
• An effective society adjusts the pay until the supply matches the need. (p. 211)
• Comparable worth: Reduced employment in female-dominated fields because women became too expensive given the abundant supply. (p. 211)
• Men may be hired first and fired last because more men are willing to do society’s dirty work and hazardous work for a lower price. (p. 212)
• The Male Version of Comparable Worth (p. 213)

 

Chapter 14. Conclusion:
Toward a New Vision of Men and Women (p. 216)

• Top Six Recommendations toward Doing What You Love, Being with Those you Love, and Still Being Economically Secure (p. 217)
• How Do I Share the Pay Gap Info in this Book and Still Have Friends? (p. 218)
• Haven’t Studies Similar to Those in This Book Still Found Women Earn
Less? (p. 220)
• Does This Book Prove Men Earn Less Than Women for the Same Work? (p. 220)
• Male vs. Female Income Power (p. 221)
• Toward a New Vision of Men and Women (p. 233)
• Both Sexes’ Genetic Investment in the Belief that Women Earn Less (p. 225)
• In the “Genes” of a Bureaucracy (p. 225)
• Toward Solutions to Improve our Children’s Lives (p. 227)
• The Impact of These Findings on Affirmative Action (p. 227)
• The Future of Affirmative Action: An Anti-Trust Tool to Break-Up Gender Monopolies (p. 229)
• Affirmative Action vs. Alternative Medicines (p. 229)
• Updating Divorce; Updating Dating (p. 231)

      ©2010 Warren Farrell, Ph.D              

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